Role of Urdu Language in Pakistan Movement: A Historical Review
The passion for the creation of Pakistan was triggered by many undeniable realities in the chapter of Hindu Muslim differences. These differences were pervasive and multidimensional, not just confined to religion or culture. Amongst other factors that invigorated the idea of a separate homeland for Muslims of Indo-Pak subcontinent, language was one of the major idea or part of the argument. This paper explores the contribution of Urdu language in Pakistan movement. It also focuses on how language emerged as a significant factor leading to establish Muslims’ linguistic and cultural distinction from Hindus. As Islam was the religious identity of Muslims of subcontinent, Urdu emerged as their lingual identity. Despite multi-lingual diaspora of the Muslim population of India, when Urdu language came to be identified as the lingua franca of the Muslims, struggling for an independent state, they preferred to register Urdu as their mother tongue. Moreover, the article explores how various sections and representatives of Pakistan Movement, with their literary, journalistic and political work, prioritised the status of Urdu language during the course of Pakistan Movement and it concluded with the declaration of Urdu as the national language of the newly established state (Pakistan). Finally, the paper highlights Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s vision and approach toward Urdu language.